Linux operating system#
newer release preferred, especially when running on containers
adequate ulimits for the user that runs the Trino process. These limits may depend on the specific Linux distribution you are using. The number of open file descriptors needed for a particular Trino instance scales as roughly the number of machines in the cluster, times some factor depending on the workload. The
nofilelimit sets the maximum number of file descriptors that a process can have, while the
nproclimit restricts the number of processes, and therefore threads on the JVM, a user can create. We recommend setting limits to the following values at a minimum. Typically, this configuration is located in
trino soft nofile 131072 trino hard nofile 131072 trino soft nproc 128000 trino hard nproc 128000
Java runtime environment#
Trino requires a 64-bit version of Java 17, with a minimum required version of 17.0.3. Earlier major versions such as Java 8 or Java 11 do not work. Newer major versions such as Java 18 or 19, are not supported – they may work, but are not tested.
We recommend using the Eclipse Temurin OpenJDK distribution from Adoptium as the JDK for Trino, as Trino is tested against that distribution. Eclipse Temurin is also the JDK used by the Trino Docker image.
If you are using Java 17 or 18, the JVM must be configured to use UTF-8 as the default charset by
etc/jvm.config. Starting with Java 19, the Java default
charset is UTF-8, so this configuration is not needed.
version 2.6.x, 2.7.x, or 3.x
required by the
Download the Trino server tarball, trino-server-426.tar.gz, and unpack it. The
tarball contains a single top-level directory,
which we call the installation directory.
Trino needs a data directory for storing logs, etc. We recommend creating a data directory outside of the installation directory, which allows it to be easily preserved when upgrading Trino.
etc directory inside the installation directory.
This holds the following configuration:
Node Properties: environmental configuration specific to each node
JVM Config: command line options for the Java Virtual Machine
Config Properties: configuration for the Trino server. See the Properties reference for available configuration properties.
Catalog Properties: configuration for Connectors (data sources). The available catalog configuration properties for a connector are described in the respective connector documentation.
The node properties file,
etc/node.properties, contains configuration
specific to each node. A node is a single installed instance of Trino
on a machine. This file is typically created by the deployment system when
Trino is first installed. The following is a minimal
node.environment=production node.id=ffffffff-ffff-ffff-ffff-ffffffffffff node.data-dir=/var/trino/data
The above properties are described below:
node.environment: The name of the environment. All Trino nodes in a cluster must have the same environment name. The name must start with a lowercase alphanumeric character and only contain lowercase alphanumeric or underscore (
node.id: The unique identifier for this installation of Trino. This must be unique for every node. This identifier should remain consistent across reboots or upgrades of Trino. If running multiple installations of Trino on a single machine (i.e. multiple nodes on the same machine), each installation must have a unique identifier. The identifier must start with an alphanumeric character and only contain alphanumeric,
node.data-dir: The location (filesystem path) of the data directory. Trino stores logs and other data here.
The JVM config file,
etc/jvm.config, contains a list of command line
options used for launching the Java Virtual Machine. The format of the file
is a list of options, one per line. These options are not interpreted by
the shell, so options containing spaces or other special characters should
not be quoted.
The following provides a good starting point for creating
-server -Xmx16G -XX:InitialRAMPercentage=80 -XX:MaxRAMPercentage=80 -XX:G1HeapRegionSize=32M -XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent -XX:+ExitOnOutOfMemoryError -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -XX:-OmitStackTraceInFastThrow -XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=512M -XX:PerMethodRecompilationCutoff=10000 -XX:PerBytecodeRecompilationCutoff=10000 -Djdk.attach.allowAttachSelf=true -Djdk.nio.maxCachedBufferSize=2000000 -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions -XX:+UseAESCTRIntrinsics -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 # Disable Preventive GC for performance reasons (JDK-8293861) -XX:-G1UsePreventiveGC
You must adjust the value for the memory used by Trino, specified with
to the available memory on your nodes. Typically, values representing 70 to 85
percent of the total available memory is recommended. For example, if all
workers and the coordinator use nodes with 64GB of RAM, you can use
Trino uses most of the allocated memory for processing, with a small percentage
used by JVM-internal processes such as garbage collection.
The rest of the available node memory must be sufficient for the operating system and other running services, as well as off-heap memory used for native code initiated the JVM process.
On larger nodes, the percentage value can be lower. Allocation of all memory to the JVM or using swap space is not supported, and disabling swap space on the operating system level is recommended.
Large memory allocation beyond 32GB is recommended for production clusters.
OutOfMemoryError typically leaves the JVM in an
inconsistent state, we write a heap dump, for debugging, and forcibly
terminate the process when this occurs.
The temporary directory used by the JVM must allow execution of code.
Specifically, the mount must not have the
noexec flag set. The default
/tmp directory is mounted with this flag in some installations, which
prevents Trino from starting. You can workaround this by overriding the
temporary directory by adding
-Djava.io.tmpdir=/path/to/other/tmpdir to the
list of JVM options.
-XX:+UseAESCTRIntrinsics to improve AES performance for S3, etc. on ARM64 (JDK-8271567)
We disable Preventive GC (
-XX:-G1UsePreventiveGC) for performance reasons (see JDK-8293861)
The config properties file,
etc/config.properties, contains the
configuration for the Trino server. Every Trino server can function as both a
coordinator and a worker. A cluster is required to include one coordinator, and
dedicating a machine to only perform coordination work provides the best
performance on larger clusters. Scaling and parallelization is achieved by using
The following is a minimal configuration for the coordinator:
coordinator=true node-scheduler.include-coordinator=false http-server.http.port=8080 discovery.uri=http://example.net:8080
And this is a minimal configuration for the workers:
coordinator=false http-server.http.port=8080 discovery.uri=http://example.net:8080
Alternatively, if you are setting up a single machine for testing, that functions as both a coordinator and worker, use this configuration:
coordinator=true node-scheduler.include-coordinator=true http-server.http.port=8080 discovery.uri=http://example.net:8080
These properties require some explanation:
coordinator: Allow this Trino instance to function as a coordinator, so to accept queries from clients and manage query execution.
node-scheduler.include-coordinator: Allow scheduling work on the coordinator. For larger clusters, processing work on the coordinator can impact query performance because the machine’s resources are not available for the critical task of scheduling, managing and monitoring query execution.
http-server.http.port: Specifies the port for the HTTP server. Trino uses HTTP for all communication, internal and external.
discovery.uri: The Trino coordinator has a discovery service that is used by all the nodes to find each other. Every Trino instance registers itself with the discovery service on startup and continuously heartbeats to keep its registration active. The discovery service shares the HTTP server with Trino and thus uses the same port. Replace
example.net:8080to match the host and port of the Trino coordinator. If you have disabled HTTP on the coordinator, the URI scheme must be
The above configuration properties are a minimal set to help you get started. All additional configuration is optional and varies widely based on the specific cluster and supported use cases. The Administration and Security sections contain documentation for many aspects, including Resource groups for configuring queuing policies and Fault-tolerant execution.
The Properties reference provides a comprehensive list of the supported properties for topics such as General properties, Resource management properties, Query management properties, Web UI properties, and others.
The optional log levels file,
etc/log.properties, allows setting the
minimum log level for named logger hierarchies. Every logger has a name,
which is typically the fully qualified name of the class that uses the logger.
Loggers have a hierarchy based on the dots in the name, like Java packages.
For example, consider the following log levels file:
This would set the minimum level to
INFO for both
The default minimum level is
thus the above example does not actually change anything.
There are four levels:
Trino accesses data via connectors, which are mounted in catalogs.
The connector provides all of the schemas and tables inside of the catalog.
For example, the Hive connector maps each Hive database to a schema.
If the Hive connector is mounted as the
hive catalog, and Hive
contains a table
clicks in database
web, that table can be accessed
in Trino as
Catalogs are registered by creating a catalog properties file
For example, create
etc/catalog/jmx.properties with the following
contents to mount the
jmx connector as the
See Connectors for more information about configuring connectors.
The installation provides a
bin/launcher script, which requires Python in
PATH. The script can be used manually or as a daemon startup script. It
accepts the following commands:
Starts the server in the foreground and leaves it running. To shut down
the server, use Ctrl+C in this terminal or the
Starts the server as a daemon and returns its process ID.
Shuts down a server started with either
Stops then restarts a running server, or starts a stopped server, assigning a new process ID.
Shuts down a possibly hung server by sending the SIGKILL signal.
Prints a status line, either Stopped pid or Running as pid.
A number of additional options allow you to specify configuration file and
directory locations, as well as Java options. Run the launcher with
to see the supported commands and command line options.
--verbose option for each command prepends the server’s
current settings before the command’s usual output.
Trino can be started as a daemon by running the following:
Alternatively, it can be run in the foreground, with the logs and other output written to stdout/stderr. Both streams should be captured if using a supervision system like daemontools:
The launcher configures default values for the configuration
etc, configuration files, the data directory
and log files in the data directory. You can change these values
to adjust your Trino usage to any requirements, such as using a
directory outside the installation directory, specific mount points
or locations, and even using other file names. For example, the Trino
RPM adjusts the used directories to better follow the Linux Filesystem
Hierarchy Standard (FHS).
After starting Trino, you can find log files in the
log directory inside
the data directory
launcher.log: This log is created by the launcher and is connected to the stdout and stderr streams of the server. It contains a few log messages that occur while the server logging is being initialized, and any errors or diagnostics produced by the JVM.
server.log: This is the main log file used by Trino. It typically contains the relevant information if the server fails during initialization. It is automatically rotated and compressed.
http-request.log: This is the HTTP request log which contains every HTTP request received by the server. It is automatically rotated and compressed.