In Trino, we are thrilled to get feedback and feature requests from our fantastic community, and we’re tirelessly motivated to meet the expectations! The SQL specification is another source of inspiration. From time to time, we go through those encrypted scrolls to give you a new feature that you didn’t even know you needed!
Recently, there was a push in Trino to extend support for window functions. In this post, we explain the complexities of window function, and describe a couple of our recent additions. If “window” doesn’t sound familiar, read on. Already a window expert? Skip to what’s new.
A window is the structure you run your window function
OVER. It has three
You use partitioning to break your input data into independent chunks. Ordering is to order rows within the partition. And frame is a kind of “sliding window”. For every processed row, the frame encloses a certain portion of the sorted partition. Your window function processes this portion and yields the result for the row.
A “running average” is one simple example:
SELECT avg(totalprice) OVER ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW) FROM orders
For a particular customer identified by
custkey, it sorts their orders by
date and computes a sequence of average prices since the beginning up to each
consecutive entry. The window frame for a row includes all rows from the start
up to and including that row.
According to standard SQL, there are 3 ways to specify the frame. The first way
ROWS (like in the example). With
ROWS, you can specify frame bounds by a
physical offset from the current row. While
ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING
AND CURRENT ROW means “between the beginning of the partition and the current
row”, you can also specify precisely where the frame starts and ends, for
ROWS BETWEEN 10 PRECEDING AND 5 FOLLOWING.
RANGE is a more complicated way of defining frame on ordered data. It does
not rely on physical offset (in rows), but on logical offset (in value). That
is, the frame includes rows where the value is within a certain range from the
value in the current row.
Until recently, Trino only supported
RANGE in limited cases.
You could use
RANGE UNBOUNDED PRECEDING,
CURRENT ROW and
UNBOUNDED PRECEDINGincludes all rows since the partition start,
UNBOUNDED FOLLOWINGincludes all rows until the partition end,
CURRENT ROWis trickier. It includes all rows where values of the sort key are the same as in the current row. We call them a peer group.
It’s time to introduce the first new feature:
Full support for frame type RANGE #
Since version 346, it is
possible to specify
RANGE with an offset value. The frame includes all rows
whose value is within this range from the current row.
Let’s modify our example:
SELECT avg(totalprice) OVER ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW) FROM orders
Now, for every row, we get the average price from the preceding month. Note that
interval '1' month applies to
orderdate, which is the sorting
Of course, we don’t have to order by date. The sorting column can be of any numeric or date/time type, and the offset must be compatible. Also, the offset doesn’t have to be a literal. It can come in another column of a table or, generally, it can be any expression, as long as the type matches.
A frame of type
RANGE does not quite fit in the abstraction of a “sliding
window”. Frames can be bigger or smaller depending not only on the offset
values but also on the actual input data. A long series of similar entries can
produce a huge frame, while a gap in input values can result in an empty frame.
For illustration, imagine a group of students, and the results of some test they
took. Our table has two columns:
result, which is the number
of points. For each student, let’s find how many students did better by 1 to 2
WITH students_results(student_id, result) AS (VALUES ('student_1', 17), ('student_2', 16), ('student_3', 18), ('student_4', 18), ('student_5', 10), ('student_6', 20), ('student_7', 16)) SELECT student_id, result, count(*) OVER ( ORDER BY result RANGE BETWEEN 1 FOLLOWING AND 2 FOLLOWING) AS close_better_scores_count FROM students_results; student_id | result | close_better_scores_count ------------+--------+--------------------------- student_5 | 10 | 0 student_7 | 16 | 3 student_2 | 16 | 3 student_1 | 17 | 2 student_3 | 18 | 1 student_4 | 18 | 1 student_6 | 20 | 0 (7 rows)
Note that the frame does not contain the current row. For a particular student,
it only includes students with better results, and not themselves. For the
student_5, there are no students with similar test results. The
frame is also empty for the lucky
student_6 who scored the most points.
RANGE, there is another way to specify the frame on
ordered data. And yes, Trino supports this mechanism! Let me introduce the
second of our recent additions:
Support for frame type GROUPS #
This feature, added in version 346, allows you to include or exclude the whole peer groups of rows in ordered data.
For illustration, let’s consider again the
students_results table. For each
student, let’s find the gap between their result and the result of a student (or
students) who did slightly better.
WITH students_results(student_id, result) AS (VALUES ('student_1', 17), ('student_2', 16), ('student_3', 18), ('student_4', 18), ('student_5', 10), ('student_6', 20), ('student_7', 16)) SELECT student_id, result, max(result) OVER ( ORDER BY result GROUPS BETWEEN CURRENT ROW AND 1 FOLLOWING) - result AS gap_till_better_score FROM students_results; student_id | result | gap_till_better_score ------------+--------+----------------------- student_5 | 10 | 6 student_7 | 16 | 1 student_2 | 16 | 1 student_1 | 17 | 1 student_3 | 18 | 2 student_4 | 18 | 2 student_6 | 20 | 0 (7 rows)
The window function for each student returns the closest better result. The
frame of type
GROUPS used here, includes all entries equal to the current
entry in terms of points (that is the student’s peer group), and the next
In frames of type
GROUPS, like in other frame types, the offset doesn’t have
to be constant. It can be any expression, as long as its type is exact numeric
with scale 0. Simply put, we can skip any integer number of groups.
Under the covers #
How do we deal with finding the frame bounds effectively? With
ROWS it’s easy.
We only need to skip a determined number of rows forward or backwards.
RANGE, we need to examine the actual values to see if they fall within
the given range. Our approach is optimized for the case where the offset values
are constant for all rows. Our solution involves caching frame bounds computed
for the preceding row, and using them as the starting point to find frame
bounds for the current row. Ideally, we never have to move the frame bounds
back as we process subsequent rows. In such a case, the amortized cost of frame
bound calculations per row is constant.
Our strategy for determining frame bounds for
GROUPS is similar. We cache the
frame bounds computed for the preceding row and use them as the starting point
for the current row. If the frame offset is constant, frame bounds slide from
one peer group to another every time the processed row leaves one peer group and
enters the next one.
Support for WINDOW clause #
As all the preceding examples show, a window function is a big chunk of syntax. What if we wanted to use several window functions over the same window? Say, we need an average price and a total price from the preceding month. And the top price. Does it have to look like the below?
SELECT avg(totalprice) OVER ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW), sum(totalprice) OVER ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW), max(totalprice) OVER ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW) FROM orders
Well, no more. Starting with
Trino 352, you can
predefine a window specification, and then use it or redefine it wherever you
need. This is thanks to the third of our new additions: support for
Technically speaking, the
WINDOW clause is part of the
SELECT … FROM … WHERE … GROUP BY … HAVING … WINDOW … ORDER BY … OFFSET … LIMIT / FETCH …
WINDOW clause, you can define any number of named windows. Then you
can simply refer to them by their names in the
SELECT list or an
Let’s check how the
WINDOW clause helps with our example query:
SELECT avg(totalprice) OVER w, sum(totalprice) OVER w, max(totalprice) OVER w FROM orders WINDOW w AS ( PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW)
To be even more concise, the
WINDOW clause allows you to define more
specialized windows from existing window definitions:
WINDOW w1 AS (PARTITION BY custkey), w2 AS (w1 ORDER BY orderdate), w3 AS (w2 RANGE BETWEEN interval '1' month PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW)
Alternatively you can define the window only partially and then complete it where it’s used:
SELECT avg(totalprice) OVER (w ROWS BETWEEN 10 PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW) AS recent_average, sum(totalprice) OVER (w ROWS BETWEEN CURRENT ROW AND 10 FOLLOWING) AS next_buys, FROM orders WINDOW w AS (PARTITION BY custkey ORDER BY orderdate)
There are some ANSI rules, though, you need to follow when redefining windows:
PARTITION BYis only allowed in the base definition,
ORDER BYcan only be specified once in the named windows reference chain,
- frame can only be specified in the final definition.
In case you wonder, there’s no need to worry if some predefined windows are eventually unused. Unused windows do not affect the efficiency of your query execution. Partitioning, sorting and frame bound computations are costly operations. That’s why we made sure that unused window parts do not appear in the query plan.
There’s one last detail about the
WINDOW clause that needs clarification. The
columns referenced in the
WINDOW clause are columns of the input table. In the
country_code is clearly a column of the table
... FROM countries WINDOW w AS (ORDER BY country_code)
Obvious enough. Why am I telling this?
Window functions can be used in two different clauses of a query,
ORDER BY. With the
ORDER BY clause, there is a rule that column references
used there refer to the output table rather than the input table. Consider this
WITH countries(country_code) AS (VALUES 'pol', 'CAN', 'USA') SELECT upper(country_code) AS country_code FROM countries WINDOW w AS (ORDER BY country_code) ORDER BY row_number() OVER w
w is used in the
ORDER BY clause. So, does the window’s ordering use
country_code column from the input table, or does it “see” the
country_code from the output table?
The SQL spec is clear about it: a column reference in the named window always
refers to the original column, no matter where you use this window. In the
example, the result is ordered according to the original values: lowercase
country_code -------------- CAN USA POL (3 rows)
And here the story ends. Thanks for your attention! I hope you enjoy Trino’s new superpowers. In case of questions or issues — you know where to find us. More goodies are on the way, so stay tuned! How about regex matching on tables?